Japanese grammar notes (full)

Takoboto grammar reference Maggie Sensei

の substituting for a noun

A noun can be left out of a sentence where it can be implied.

あれは だれの かばんですか。Whose bag is that?
…わたしのですIt's mine.

Demonstratives

close to the speakernear the other person or not farfar from the speaker/listenerquestion
Thingこれそれあれどれ
Thing/Personこの Nその Nあの Nどの N
Placeここそこあそこどこ
Direction (or polite Place)こちらそちらあちらどちら

〜も and 〜か

何も(なにも) means nothing (or anything), 何か(なにか) means something (or anything). 何も 食べません = "I'm not going to eat anything."

も can be used this way with all interrogatives. e.g. どこも/どこへも 行きません = "not going anywhere", だれも 話しません = "nobody speaks".

な and い adjectives

Inflections

な-adjectives are treated the same as nouns.

な-adj.い-adj.
Non-past affirmativeしずかですたかいです
Non-past negativeしずかじゃ ありません/じゃ ないたかくないです

Verb forms